Wireless communication systems for the data transmission of integrated sensors in future road systems
The implementation of multifunctional and sensitive materials in road construction enables the integration of new types of sensors into the "road of the future" system. In order to evaluate the sensor data of the real space in the virtual space of the digital twin, they must first be transmitted to roadway stations. Subproject A08 is developing a wireless data transmission system suitable for this purpose, consisting of a transmitter system integrated in the roadway and an adaptive receiver as part of the roadway stations.
For qualitative modelling of wave propagation, the materials developed by SP A03, A05, A06 and A07 are first characterized with respect to their dielectric properties. Based on this, channel models are derived which also reflect the influence of changing environmental conditions. According to the material influence and the necessary data rates, suitable operating frequency ranges of the transmission system can be identified. The selected frequency ranges are then used to design adapted antennas for the transmission system. Two approaches are investigated: Antennas based on the carbon fibre reinforcement developed in SP AP05 as well as PCB antennas. Matching the antenna structure, the transmitter will be built with energy-efficient electronics. Of particular interest is the energy supply: in addition to a battery-based energy supply, the energy harvesting approach from SP A03 will also be investigated. Simultaneously with the development of the transmitter integrated into the track, an adaptive and energy-efficient receiving system is being designed for implementation in the track stations. The main focus is on the use of analogue 2D Beamswitching, including passive control networks and suitable antenna arrays.